Global Environmental Governance: Key Challenges to Effective Global Environmental GovernanceIn this chapter we take the six key areas of concern that were identified earlier and analyze each of them in greater depth to determine the extent of the challenge and the emerging trends in terms of how it is being managed. We are particularly interested in figuring out just how important each of these challenges is and which actions, among the actions that are already being taken, are most effective in responding to the concerns.
Some of these challenges are, in fact, endemic to the international system and not specific only to global environmental governance. However, each has a potentially important impact on the future of GEG. The remainder of this chapter will diagnose each of the following six challenges: (a) proliferation of MEAs and fragmentation of GEG; (b) lack of cooperation and coordination among international organizations; (c) lack of implementation, enforcement and effectiveness in GEG; (d) inefficient use of resources; (e) GEG outside the environmental arena; and (f) non-state actors in a state-centric system.